Product Details

Product Name ::SOVAL CHRONO

Description ::

SOVAL CHRONO

(Controlled release sodium valproate+ valproic acid equivalent to sodium valproate 200/300/500 mg)

·        Mode of action : Valproate is believed to affect the function of the neurotransmitter GABA (as a GABA transaminase inhibitor) in the human brain, making it an alternative to lithium salts in treatment of bipolar disorders. For addition to blocking transamincation of GABA, valproate is believed to reverse the transamination process to form more GABA. Hence valproate indirectly acts as a GABA agonist. However, several other mechanisms of action in neuropsychiatric disorders have been proposed for valproic acid in recent years. Valproic acid also blocks the voltage-gated sodium channels and T-type calcium channels. These mechanisms make valproic acid a broad spectrum anticonvulsant drug. Valproic acid is an inhibitor of the enzyme histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC 1) hence it is a histone deacetylase inhibitor.

·        Overview :

v Epilepsy, cognition and mood--- It has proved difficult to establish the comparative severity of cognitive effects between different epileptics. However, it seems to be generally agreed that barbiturate antiepileptics such as Phenobarbital and (particularly in the elderly) benzodiazepines, such as clobazam and clonazepam (CZAM) & (LONAPAM) have the worst profile.

Other standard antiepileptics such as phenytoin (EPSOD) carbamazepine (SHITOL) and valproate seem to have more modest and broadly comparable effects.

A review has suggested that the following epileptics offer lower risk (less than 1 %, some might actually have positive effects on mood).

Carbamazepine (SHITOL), Gabapentine (SHINOGAB), Lamotrigine (MORTIGIN), Phenytoin (EPSOD), Valproate (SOVAL CHRONO).

In January 2008, the FDA issued an alert after analysis of 199 placebo-controlled studies of antiepileptic drugs in the management of not only epilepsy but also psychiatric disorders (including bipolar disorders and depression) and other conditions such as migraine & neuropathic pain.

Myoclonous : This may be subdivided into cortical, reticular or spinal forms.

Cortical myoclonus responds best to antiepileptics usually valproate (SOVAL CHRONO) and / or clonazepam (LONAPAM), Reticular myoclonus may be treated with LONAPAM (Clonazepam).

Valproate :  

v Antidepressants: As with all antiepileptics, antidepressents may antagonize antiepileptic activity of valproate by lowering the convulsion threshold.

v Antiepileptics : The barbiturate antiepileptic Phenobarbital is reported to decrease serum-valproate concentrations, when given together, apparently by induction of valproate netabolism.

v Antipsychotics : As with all antiepileptics, antipsychotics may antagonize the antiepileptic activity of valproate by lowering the convulsive threshold

·        Pharmacokinetics :

SOVAL CHRONO and its salts are rapidly & completely absorbed from the G.I.tract; the rate but, but not the extent, of absorption is delayed if given                  or after food.

SOVAL CHRONO is excreted in the urine almost entirely in the form of its metabolites.

SOVAL CHRONO is extensively bound to plasma proteins, 90-95 %. Reported half-lives for SOVAL CHRONO have ranged from 5-20 hours.

·        Uses & administration :

SOVAL CHRONO (Valproate) is an antiepileptic, used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizures, has notable benefit in absence and myoclonic seizures, and is also used for partial seizures.

This has been used in nervous system, HIV infection and AIDS, Cushing’s syndrome, migraine, muscle spasm etc.

(Adopted from martindale 36th edition, pg. 465-512)

·        Indications : As an anticonvulsant , valproic acid is used to control absence seizures , tonic-clonic seizures (grandma), complex partial seizures, juvenile/grandmal myclonic epilepsy and the seizures associated with lennox-gastant syndrome. It is also used in treatment of myoclonus. In some countries, parental (administered I.U.) preparations of valproate are used as also as second line treatment of status epilepticus, as an alternative to phenytoin. Valproate is one of the most common drugs used to treat post traumatic epilepsy. According to Medical News Today, valproic acid can be used for the treatment of the manic episodes associated with bipolar disorders, adjunctive therapy in multiple seizures types (including epilepsy) and prophylaxis of migrade headaches. It is more recently being used to treat neuropathic pain, as a second line agent, particularly lancinating pain from A * fibres. 

·        Dosage : Usual dosage one tablet, 200 mg, or 300 mg or 500 mg per day according to the body weight & body mass.

·        Side effects : common side effects are dyspepsia and/or weight gain. Less common are fatigue, peripheria edema, acne, dizziness, drowsiness, sedation & tremors. Valproic acid also cause hyperammonemia, which can lead to brain damage. There have been reports of brain encephalopathy developing without hyperammonemia or elevated valproate levels.

 
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